東南アジアに生息するジンチョウゲ科ジンコウ属（学名：アクイラリア・アガローチャ Aquilaria agallocha）の植物である沈香木などが、風雨や病気・害虫などによって自分の木部を侵されたとき、その防御策としてダメージ部の内部に樹脂を分泌、蓄積したものを乾燥させ、木部を削り取ったものである。原木は、比重が0.4と非常に軽いが、樹脂が沈着することで比重が増し、水に沈むようになる。これが「沈水」の由来となっている。幹、花、葉ともに無香であるが、熱することで独特の芳香を放ち、同じ木から採取したものであっても微妙に香りが違うために、わずかな違いを利き分ける香道において、組香での利用に適している。
最終更新 2013年5月6日 (月) 08:44
Agarwood, also known as oud, oodh or agar, is a dark resinous heartwood that forms in Aquilaria and Gyrinops trees (large evergreens native to southeast Asia) when they become infected with a type of mould. Prior to infection, the heartwood is relatively light and pale coloured; however, as the infection progresses, the tree produces a dark aromatic resin in response to the attack, which results in a very dense, dark, resin embedded heartwood. The resin embedded wood is commonly called gaharu, jinko, aloeswood, agarwood, or oud (not to be confused with 'Bakhoor') and is valued in many cultures for its distinctive fragrance, and thus is used for incense and perfumes.
1st grade agarwood
One of the main reasons for the relative rarity and high cost of agarwood is the depletion of the wild resource. Since 1995 Aquilaria malaccensis, the primary source, has been listed in Appendix II (potentially threatened species) by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. In 2004 all Aquilaria species were listed in Appendix II; however, a number of countries have outstanding reservations regarding that listing.
The odour of agarwood is complex and pleasing, with few or no similar natural analogues. As a result, agarwood and its essential oil gained great cultural and religious significance in ancient civilizations around the world, being mentioned throughout one of the world's oldest written texts – the Sanskrit Vedas from India.
As early as the third century AD in ancient China, the chronicle Nan zhou yi wu zhi (Strange things from the South) written by Wa Zhen of the Eastern Wu Dynasty mentioned agarwood produced in the Rinan commandery, now Central Vietnam, and how people collected it in the mountains.
Starting in 1580 after Nguyễn Hoàng took control over the central provinces of modern Vietnam, he encouraged trade with other countries, specifically China and Japan. Agarwood was exported in three varieties: Calambac (kỳ nam in Vietnamese), trầm hương (very similar but slightly harder and slightly more abundant), and agarwood proper. A pound of Calambac bought in Hội An for 15 taels could be sold in Nagasaki for 600 taels. The Nguyễn Lords soon established a Royal Monopoly over the sale of Calambac. This monopoly helped fund the Nguyễn state finances during the early years of the Nguyen rule.
Xuanzang's travelogues and the Harshacharita, written in seventh century AD in Northern India, mentions use of agarwood products such as 'Xasipat' (writing-material) and 'aloe-oil' in ancient Assam (Kamarupa). The tradition of making writing materials from its bark still exists in Assam.
Agarwood is known under many names in different cultures:
In Urdu (Pakistan) and Hindi (India), it is known as agar, which is originally Sanskrit aguru (in Bengali, also aguru).
It is known by the same Sanskrit name in Telugu and Kannada as Aguru.
It is known as chénxiāng (沉香) in Chinese, "Cham Heong" in Cantonese, trầm hương in Vietnamese, and jinkō (沈香) in Japanese; all meaning "sinking incense" and alluding to its high density. In Japan, there are several grades of jinkō, the highest of which is known as kyara (伽羅).
Both agarwood and its resin distillate/extracts are known as oud (عود) in Arabic (literally "rod/stick") and used to describe agarwood in nations and areas in Arabic countries. Western perfumers may also use agarwood essential oil under the name "oud" or "oude".
In Europe it was referred to as Lignum aquila (eagle-wood) or Agilawood, because of the similarity in sound of agila to gaharu.
Another name is Lignum aloes or Aloeswood. This is potentially confusing, since a genus Aloe exists (unrelated), which has medicinal uses.
In Tibetan it is known as ཨ་ག་རུ་ (a-ga-ru). There are several varieties used in Tibetan Medicine: unique eaglewood: ཨར་བ་ཞིག་ (ar-ba-zhig); yellow eaglewood: ཨ་ག་རུ་སེར་པོ་ (a-ga-ru ser-po), white eaglewood: ཨར་སྐྱ་ (ar-skya), and black eaglewood: ཨར་ནག་(ar-nag).
In Assamese it is called as "sasi" or "sashi".
The Indonesian and Malay name is "gaharu".
In Papua New Guinea it is called "ghara" or eaglewood.
In Thai language it is known as "Mai Kritsana" (ไม้กฤษณา).
In Tamil it is called "akil" (அகில்) though what was referred in ancient Tamil literature could well be Excoecaria agallocha.
In Laos it is known as "Mai Ketsana".
There are fifteen species in the genus Aquilaria and eight are known to produce agarwood. In theory agarwood can be produced from all members; however, until recently it was primarily produced from A. malaccensis. A. agallocha and A. secundaria are synonyms for A. malaccensis. A. crassna and A. sinensis are the other two members of the genus that are usually harvested.
Formation of agarwood occurs in the trunk and roots of trees that have been infected by a parasitc ascomycetous mould, Phaeoacremonium parasitica, a dematiaceous (dark-walled) fungus. As a response, the tree produces a resin high in volatile organic compounds that aids in suppressing or retarding the fungal growth, a process called tylosis. While the unaffected wood of the tree is relatively light in colour, the resin dramatically increases the mass and density of the affected wood, changing its colour from a pale beige to dark brown or black. In natural forest only about 7% of the trees are infected by the fungus. A common method in artificial forestry is to inoculate all the trees with the fungus.
Aquilaria species that produce agarwood
Aquilaria khasiana, found in India.
Aquilaria apiculina, found in Philippines
Aquilaria acuminata, found in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia & Philippines
Aquilaria baillonil, found in Thailand and Cambodia
Aquilaria baneonsis, found in Vietnam
Aquilaria beccariana, found in Indonesia
Aquilaria brachyantha, found in Malaysia
Aquilaria crassna found in Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam
Aquilaria cumingiana, found in Indonesia and Malaysia Aquilaria filaria, found in New Guinea, the Moluccas, and Mindanao (Philippines)
Aquilaria grandiflora, found in China
Aquilaria hirta, found in Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia
Aquilaria malaccensis, found in Malaysia, Thailand, and India
Aquilaria microcapa, found in Indonesia and Malaysia
Aquilaria rostrata, found in Malaysia
Aquilaria sinensis, found in China
Aquilaria subintegra, found in Thailand
Conservation of agarwood-producing species
Overharvesting and habitat loss threatens some populations of agarwood-producing species. Concern over the impact of the global demand for agarwood has thus led to the inclusion of the main taxa on CITES Appendix II, which requires that international trade in agarwood is subject to controls designed to ensure that harvest and exports are not to the detriment of the survival of the species in the wild.
In addition, agarwood plantations have been established in a number of countries. The success of these plantation depends on the stimulation of agarwood production in the trees. Numerous inoculation techniques have been developed, with varying degrees of success.
Article by David Oller & Kyozaburo Nakata
Article that describes the challenge of sourcing agarwood.
Hong Kong herbarium factsheet of Aquilaria sinensis
Etymology of agarwood and aloe
photographs of the resin, agarwood and aquilaria
"Sustainable Agarwood Production in Aquilaria Trees" at the University of Minnesota
This page was last modified on 16 June 2013 at 05:04.
Thai Borai Agarwood Co.,Ltd.,We are the bigest Agarwood oil distillation Manufacturers
Agarwood inducement by Witsawa Sripetkla.
Agarwood inducement 2 (sticks)
Agarwood Stick Inducing Method.
Agar Wood Plantation in Salbari, Nagaon organised by A & Z Perfumes.
Agarwood Siam info
Agarwood Siam info 2
Agarwood Siam info 4
Agarwood Siam info 5
Agarwood Siam info 7
Agarwood Siam 9
Agarwood Test Resin 1
Agarwood Test Resin 2
Sustainable Agarwood Production in Aquilaria Trees
|Agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood, jinkoh, gaharu are names for the world’s most valuable incense. This resinous material is produced by tropical rainforest trees and has been used for centuries as incense and in traditional medicine. In the past, old growth Aquilaria and Gyrinops trees were indiscriminately cut to find the resin (usually hidden within the center of only a few old trees). Today in many countries of Southeast Asia where the tree was once native, it has become very rare due to increased harvesting. The resinous wood or oil extracted from the inside of some trees is extremely valuable since it is highly regarded for use during Buddhist and Islamic cultural activities as well as an important ingredient in many traditional medicines. It is also an extremely important component in traditional Japanese incense ceremonies. Although most people in the United States and Europe are not familiar with this aromatic resinous wood, its use as incense (called aloeswood) is mentioned several times in the bible. People in the United States, Europe and other countries that have had the opportunity to smell the fragrance of this extraordinary incense find it very appealing and pleasant. |
Aquilaria trees are now protected in most countries and the collection of agarwood is illegal from natural forests. International agreements, such as CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), accepted by 169 countries, is designed to ensure trade in agarwood products from wild trees does not threaten the survival of Aquilaria. Despite these efforts agarwood products from illegally cut trees continues to be sold and unknowing consumers create a demand that helps to destroy the last old growth Aquilaria trees in existence.
What triggers agarwood to form in some old growth trees has been an unsolved mystery. Our research investigation over the last 12 years in cooperation with The Rainforest Project Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation of the worlds forests http://www.agarwood.org.vn, has studied the formation of resin in Aquilaria and Gyrinops trees and found a method to produce the resin in plantation grown young trees. This technique consists of wounding trees in a specific manner and applying treatments to accelerate the natural defense responses of the tree. The technique allows a sustainable yield of resin to be produced in relatively young trees. Agarwood is a high value forest product that is easy to store and ship. Our newly developed methods to cultivate agarwood is providing a new economic, non-timber forest product for Southeast Asia and other tropical regions of the world. This new economy in rural areas will help many of the world’s poorest people. The sustainable production of agarwood in plantation grown trees eliminates the need to cut old growth forest trees for the resin and will help save this endangered tree from possible extinction. This work also provides a source of cultivated agarwood so this magnificent aromatic resin can be enjoyed by people throughout the world. The world's first cultivated agarwood produced using our technology by farmers in Vietnam is now available and can be purchased from distributers and from the internet.
Follow these links for:
Additional photographs of Aquilaria and information on agarwood formation
Information on the various countries where our field demonstration sites for agarwood production are located
Agarwood production in Papua New Guinea
Agarwood production in Bhutan
Information from the First International Agarwood Conference
©2006 Robert A.Blanchette. All Rights Reserved.
Pieces of agarwood from forest trees
One of the few remaining old growth Aquilaria trees in Vietnam
Professor Blanchette at one of the field experiment sites
Cultivated agarwood produced in a plantation grown tree using our new techniques
Incense made from cultivated agarwood using our technology is providing a new economy to poor rural farmers. Cultivated agarwood from Vietnam is now being sold worldwide
Premium cultivated agarwood chips can now be obtained from plantation grown trees in a relatively short time.